Stockholm 2017!

Below is a note from our Research Assistant Cherry. It is a recap of our office’s trip to Stockholm in August, and Cherry’s personal reflections. Enjoy! (Cherry also wants you to follow her on Instagram: @cherryyyyyy_sangggg).

I went with our office on an offsite trip to Stockholm in late August. To do what? To exchange ideas on youth-related matters. Sweden is known for its equality and social welfare measures – children, youth, adults and elderly all enjoy equal rights in Sweden. Also, Sweden has a comprehensive youth policy, and they have the largest youth center in the world. I was very excited to visit and ask questions about this fascinating country.

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Day 1

The first stop we visited was Fryshuset, which is the largest youth center in the world. We had a casual lunch at their center talking about youth-related activities in the two cities, the things that the cities have in common and what we can learn from each other. My colleagues and I were very much impressed by their spirits. Johan, the CEO of Fryshuset, said, “we don’t look at the past of our participants. No matter which country they are from, whatever their socioeconomic background, and whether they are refugees, we only look at their future.” He also mentioned that as a youth organization, they don’t believe in specialization in youth work. Instead, they constantly consult youth and organically expand their services based on young people’s interests and needs. Therefore, when we were taking a tour at the center, we saw different kinds of facilities for youth who have different interests. In addition, they offer world-class trainers and instructors to guide young people in developing their interests with fully equipped facilities and production studios.


One of the skateboarding venues at Fryshuset.


After lunch, we went to a local NGO called Protus. For friends who have been following Ming Wai on Facebook, you may have noticed that we posted some photos taken at Protus a few days ago. Protus is a very dynamic organization. Protus was started in 2009. It follows a Finnish model for experiential learning in philosophy and life values. They organize 12- days summer camps on a remote island every year and let young people gain life experiences during that time on the island. Their central theme is exploration but not dictation. They believe that young people should lead young people. Youth leaders will facilitate discussion with participants and a lot of times youth leaders are around the same age as participants.


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‘Fika’ – Refers to coffee and tea time in Swedish

Our team and the Protus Team


After a great discussion and ‘Fika’ time at Protus we moved downstairs to Epicenter, which is a co-working space for tech start-up industries and individuals. The coolest thing about the Epicenter is not just that it has a very innovative, but the members from the center were implanted with a grain – sized micro-chip in their hands and that could be used to open the doors, access to printers and even buying food from the vending machine.

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The Epicenter in Stockholm with their very innovative co-working spaces


The CEO of Epicenter told us that membership requires more than monetary subscription; members need to be active in contributing to the community and in its activities. Big firms like Twitter and Spotify like to be involved in Epicenter as they can be geographically close to smaller start-ups, which can offer ideas for business innovation. Also, for smaller firms, they have opportunities to get in touch with bigger firms and collaborate. One thing I noticed was that there was a room dedicated to failed start-up cases, encouraging young people to appreciate their failures and try to understand the reasons behind them.

The last stop of the day was the Nobel Foundation. I believe we all know or at least have heard about the Nobel Prize, but what people may not know is that the Nobel Foundation was established in Stockholm. People from the Nobel Foundation introduced their work. We also discussed how to encourage young people to develop their interests in science.


You might find our trip to be very boring, as it was filled with so many different meetings. But let me tell you – our trip has just started at this point!

Day 2

Stockholm had such amazing weather that we decided to have an outdoor BBQ, and make some jam for colleagues who unfortunately had to stay in Hong Kong.




Day 3

Sunday was a big day! There was a triathlon in Stockholm during the weekend. Under Ming Wai’s coercion (oops, no should be ‘encouragement’), all colleagues participated in a triathlon. But I enjoyed the experience.

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Day 4

The last day was a work day filled with meetings. We first visited the City Hall of Stockholm and had a meeting with Olle Burell, Stockholm’s Deputy Mayor, and exchanged notes on the differences between the education systems of the two cities. Surprisingly, we found out that ‘Monster Parents’ and ‘Tiger Moms’ do not just exist in Hong Kong. They are everywhere! Some parents would use their work e-mail address to email the school to apply pressure to teachers to make sure that their children would receive the best resources. Besides that, I believe there are a lot of things that we could learn from Sweden’s education system, for example, students were asked to choose as early as at age 15 their future career path – to either specialize in vocational education or go into the academic stream. This allows young people to follow the path that they enjoy the most.

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The Mayor took us around in the City Hall and explained the history of the building


The last stop before we headed back to Hong Kong was a meeting with LUF (Liberal Youth of Sweden). This is the youth wing of Sweden’s Liberal Party and is chaired by young adults. LUF strongly advocates youth’s civic participation. Their idea of civic participation does not only include youth rights, but also youth’s general engagement and expression of opinions on wider social issues such as housing or education. Another thing – surprise surprise! The two members we met with were not familiar with the Swedish youth policy! This is because the principles and spirit of the youth policy permeates governmental measures and actions. (Click to review the key points of the Swedish youth policy).


Lunch with Luf leaders

That was a very interesting discussion with the LUF and understood the political environment in Sweden as well as how we could help the young people here in Hong Kong to be more involved in the civic participation.


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Luf’s campaign poster – ‘the cat loves open border’

‘Talk to the invisible hand’


Lastly, I would like to close this post with a fun fact that we heard from the LUF that the Social Democratic Labor Party (SAP), the largest party in Sweden and its ruling party for the majority of the past 100 years, and its Swedish Social Democratic Youth Union (SSU), own a lottery company in Sweden and the proceeds of that company go to fund the party’s operation.

The offsite trip to Stockholm was a lot of fun, not just that we have learnt a lot about how Swedish people think and work but also some unique experiences that I had (Triathlon!).

Therefore, in conclusion, I think we need to have more of this kind of offsite trips.

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青年政策 刻不容緩

2015年4月1日,我正式成為青年事務委員會主席。如今踏入兩週年,我亦有幸獲再度委任,正好藉此機會回顧過去,展望將來。 Continue reading







在政府與其他持份者的努力下,近年有關青年的措施無論在質素或數量上都有相當的進步。民政事務局最近就出版了《本屆政府的青年發展工作 2012-2017:回顧和前瞻》,歸納過去一屆特區政府在有關方面的工作,包括培養多元發展和環球視野,鼓勵青年參與義工服務等等。小冊子没有提及非政府組織在社區層面的措施,但值得一提的是這些社區活動當中也有不少充滿創意而又具影響力的想法。就青年發展的整體未來路向而言,我一直希望能增加各界持份者之間的交流,共同進行檢討,持續完善相關的做法。期望在大家的共同努力下,青年最終能受惠。






嚴格而言,青年政策不算創新;不少國家早已設立了類似的政策。有海外機構(Youth Policy Lab)就指出,截至2014年,全球超過六成的國家都設有青年政策。從英國、澳洲、新西蘭、加拿大魁北克省,以至澳門的例子可見,青年政策不是一張羅列所有相關措施的清單,而是一個全面的框架,高層次地勾劃出社會對青年的願景,以及政府在青年工作方面投放資源的重點。


慶幸經過一年的努力,主要是透過網頁(和 Facebook(的宣傳,不少人都表示希望香港設立一套完整的青年政策。青年渴望見到政府對青年發展作出更有力的承擔;相關政府官員和持份者亦希望社會能對青年發展有著一致的願景,以主導他們的工作。










  • 教育應著重為青年提供更多多元發展的機會,讓學生發掘自身的興趣及潛能,並以此為根據發揮所長。教育亦應裝備青年,讓他們具備當今社會必備的技能,例如批判思考、解難能力、溝通和與人合作的技巧、數碼數養,以及國際視野。我們需要全面檢討香港的教育制度是否能培養以上技能,由教學大綱、課程內容,以至考核方法都要考慮。另一方面,亦應客觀評估生涯規劃以及職業教育的成效,以確保資源用得其所。
  • 要改善青年的就業前景及向上流動性,我們必須發展多元經濟,為年輕人帶來傳統產業以外的優質就業機會。與此同時,裝備青年也是不可或缺的一環。政府可充當業界和專上教育界之間的橋樑,鼓勵商校交流。具體的方法包括增加學生實習的機會、加強學生的職業訓練等。而對於有志於創新及科技、創意文化和體育方面發展的青年,以及年輕創業家,我們要給予額外的支持,除了硬體上的供應,還要為他們建立更多融資平台和人際網絡。
  • 為加強青年的公民參與,特區政府應在特首帶領之下更主動接觸青年,在政策制訂過程中吸納青年的聲音。溝通渠道亦可更多元,包括非官方活動、面對面訪談和社交媒體上的交流等等。另一方面,亦應鼓勵不同背景的青年都多參與義工服務,以培養公民責任和對香港社會的歸屬感。
  • 身心健康方面,政府可參考海外的做法,以抗逆力作為青年政策的其中一個核心價值。我希望青年能堅強地成長,能在逆境中自強。青年政策亦應以此為願景,透過家庭、學校、社區的共同努力達成目標。



  • 增加每年50億元的教育經常開支;
  • 透過每年的「行政長官優質教育高峰會」,親自聆聽教育界各持份者的意見;
  • 邀請教育專家,由理念及執行上全面檢視教育制度;
  • 鼓勵教師專注教授中文作為第二語言、有特殊學習需要(SEN)學生;
  • 加強推動STEM的教育,研究增加對學校相關資助的金額;
  • 把電腦程式編寫(coding)引進學校課程;
  • 探討大專學生學費貸款靈活還款安排的可行性。


  • 吸引國際知名、公認為行內翹楚的機構落戶香港,為香港培訓創科人才;
  • 為創意產業的發展打破局限,讓在表演藝術、電腦設計、動漫、電影等界別方面發展的青年有空間發揮所長,包括研究設立更多表演場地;
  • 推動體育在學校普及化,加強香港體育學院研究深化培養精英運動員的策略及改善相關配套,並在現有基礎上增撥資源持續推行各項支援退役運動員發展的計劃;
  • 與擁有成功活化工廈的業主商討,以優惠租金出租部分樓層為共用工作空間。


  • 成立「青年發展委員會」,考慮起用一定比例的青年委員,探討增設院校代表的可行性;
  • 招聘20至30名有志於政策及項目研究、來自不同專業的青年,加入由中央政策組改組成的政策及項目統籌單位;
  • 要求各政策局委任更多來自不同界別的青年成為法定組織及委員會委員;
  • 選定某些諮詢委員會試行「委員自薦計劃」,讓不同界別背景的青年都有機會參與公共政策討論。


  • 關注學童的身心靈需要,以校本推動學校進行生命教育,配合家校合作,提升學童的情緒健康與抗逆力。





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Now is the Time for a Youth Policy

1st April 2017 marks the two-year anniversary and the renewal of my appointment as Chairman of the Commission on Youth (“CoY“). I would like to take this occasion to review my past term’s work, and outline my priorities for the next term. Continue reading

Observations from Youth and Public Engagements

During my term, I met with young people and stakeholders in youth development at 460 occasions to have a better understanding of their situations, thoughts and needs. I also placed much emphasis on engaging and soliciting views from the public through social media. Three observations can be made from these exchanges.

First, Hong Kong’s youth face many challenges in their transition to adulthood – striving to excel in school, find a good job, attain financial independence and, for many, buy a property; maintain a global outlook and competitiveness in this age of interconnectivity and ever-evolving technology; cope with the stresses that modern life brings to one’s physical and mental wellbeing; establish healthy and loving relationships within one’s family and community, so on and so forth.

Second, existing youth-related measures tend to mostly benefit at-risk youth and the elites. One of my priorities have been to reach out to young people who are neither at risk nor at the top – what I call the “middle 80%”. Successful youth development work should take into account the plurality of young people and support each and everyone of them in fully realising their potential. Such is the vision of the CoY – to foster a culture of multi-faceted excellence.

Third, many young people have expressed an interest in political and social issues and they would like to have greater influence on policymaking. They should be given more opportunities to voice their opinions and their views should be properly recognised. They should especially have a say in the future direction of youth development work.

Review of Hong Kong’s Youth Development Work

Through the efforts of the Hong Kong SAR Government (“HKSARG”) acting together with stakeholders in other sectors, we have witnessed a rise in the quantity and quality of youth-related measures (which is not the same as a youth policy, and I will turn to this below). The Youth Development Work of the Current-term Government 2012-2017: Review and Outlook, a booklet recently released by the Home Affairs Bureau (“HAB”), summarises existing measures to promote multi-faceted development, global perspectives, volunteerism, youth engagement and community participation. The booklet did not include initiatives at a community level, many of which I have observed to be innovative and impactful. In reviewing youth-related measures (whether government-led or not), I have been mindful to identify best practices and encourage more cross-sectoral exchanges so that, together, we can scale measures that truly benefit our youth.

While reviewing individual measures is important, what we often forget is that these measures affect a young person’s growth and development in a way such that they cannot be viewed in isolation. A young person who does not have sufficient guidance on life planning may find himself in a job that does not suit him and feel trapped or financially vulnerable; or a teenager who has experienced cyberbullying might express his frustration in ways that harm himself or the society.

Hong Kong has many youth-related measures, but they are often the efforts of bureaux and non-governmental actors working in silos.

What Hong Kong lacks is a youth policy to facilitate coordination between stakeholders and lay down a central guiding principle for youth development in the long term.

Hong Kong Needs a Youth Policy

I dedicated much of my time last year to reviewing Hong Kong’s historical development of a youth policy and overseas experience. The 1980s saw an attempt to introduce a youth policy to consolidate existing efforts in youth development, but it did not come to fruition. Back then, a Central Committee on Youth (“CCY”) was set up to research and consult the public on the need for a youth policy. Based on its findings and public opinion, the CCY recommended the colonial government to formulate a youth policy and establish a commission on youth for the task. The CCY’s recommendation for a youth policy was rejected, though its recommendation for a commission on youth was accepted, hence the CoY today.

A youth policy is not a novel idea; many countries have one. Independent think tank Youth Policy Labs’ survey in 2014 found that 62 per cent of nations worldwide have a national youth policy. Examples include the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, certain states in Canada like Québec, and our neighbour Macao SAR of China. These examples all demonstrate that a youth policy is not merely a laundry list of youth-related measures; it is a high-level document that outlines a city’s vision for its young people and the government’s long-term investment priorities for achieving that vision.

While a youth policy fosters strategic direction for youth development work across the board and ensures that youth-related measures are consistent, it is not a silver bullet that will help our young people overcome all of their challenges in life. As a set of guidelines for long-term action, the effects of a youth policy may not be visible until many years later, and its impact on individual lives may not be apparent. This may be why our society has not, until recently, started to discuss whether Hong Kong needs a youth policy.

I am glad to see that after a year of public education and engagement (mostly through the website: and Facebook:, many members of the public have expressed a wish to see a more comprehensive set of youth policy in Hong Kong. Young people want to see more commitment on the part of the HKSARG to youth development. HKSARG officials and other stakeholders indicated that they would benefit from a central vision to underpin their actions.

Recent Developments

2016-2017 has been an exciting time for Hong Kong’s youth development.

In the Policy Address 2017, the CoY was invited to put forward proposals on the future direction of a youth development policy and strengthen coordination with various government departments in youth development.

In her manifesto for the Chief Election election, Ms. Carrie Lam asked the CoY to promptly complete the first draft of a youth policy, as the basis for establishing a Youth Development Commission (“YDC”).

Now is therefore the time for our society to think and talk about Hong Kong’s youth policy. In the coming 9-12 months, the CoY will conduct extensive public consultations on this.

Chaired by the Chief Secretary for Administration and comprising youth members, the YDC would steer relevant policy bureaux and departments to take forward youth development initiatives. The CoY would be incorporated into the YDC.

In the coming year, the CoY will form a dedicated focus group to coordinate a series of discussions with young people, youth groups, youth ambassadors, teachers, school principals, parents, employers, social workers, NGOs, and representatives from other groups and sectors. Apart from engaging the public on Hong Kong’s youth policy, the CoY will solicit views on individual youth-related measures.

Youth-related Measures

I welcome suggestions on existing measures as well as new ones to be introduced. Below are my proposals relating to education, jobs, civic participation, and health and wellbeing, which were more fully explained in my note to all Chief Executive candidates.

  • Our education system should create enough opportunities for students to explore different subjects and interests starting from an early age, and have flexible pathways for them to develop their strengths according to their passions. It should hone skills that are essential in modern society, including critical thinking, problem solving, communication and collaboration skills, and cultivate digital fluency and a global outlook. With a view to attaining these objectives, there needs to be a complete review of Hong Kong’s education system, from its syllabus and curriculum to assessment methods, led by experts. We also need to objectively assess our career and life planning education and vocational training to ensure that resources spent in these areas are fully utilised.
  • To improve job prospects and upward mobility, Hong Kong needs to have a broader, more diversified economic base such that young people can enjoy an abundance of quality job opportunities. To enhance young people’s job-readiness, particularly from an employer’s perspective, the HKSARG should create more communication channels between employers and tertiary institutions, and encourage employers to let students gain work experience in their school years through internship programmes. Young people seeking careers in the fields of innovation and technology (I.T.), arts and culture, sports and entrepreneurship need extra support, from infrastructure to funding to capacity- and network-building.
  • To enhance youth civic participation, the Chief Executive should lead HKSARG officials in being more proactive and initiating exchanges with youth (formal and informal; in person and on social media), and actively listen to and acknowledge their views. Encouraging volunteerism is another way to instill citizenship values. These opportunities should be readily available to young people from all backgrounds.
  • In the area of health and wellbeing, we should consider following overseas practice and include resilience as one of the pillars of Hong Kong’s youth policy. We should instill in our young the “mental toughness” to deal with challenges and setbacks in life, and our youth policy should lay down a strategic framework as to how this can be done in all contexts – at home, in school, and in the community.

Ms. Carrie Lam addressed each of the above areas in her manifesto and I was particularly glad to see the following proposals.


  • Increase the HKSARG’s recurrent expenditure on education by HK$5 billion a year;
  • Engage stakeholders through an annual Chief Executive Summit on Quality Education;
  • Commission experts to conduct a comprehensive review of the education system, from its philosophy to individual measures;
  • Encourage teachers to acquire specialised skills in teaching Chinese as a second language and students with special education needs (“SEN”);
  • Promote science, technology, engineering and mathematics (“STEM”) education;
  • Introduce coding into school curricula; and
  • Explore the feasibility of flexible repayment arrangements for newly graduated students of tertiary institutions.


  • Attract leading I.T. companies to set up in Hong Kong and provide training to local startups;
  • Create a more favourable environment for young people to develop their talents in creative industries such as performing arts, computer design, comics and animation and film-making, and consider the feasibility of building more performance venues;
  • Promote physical education in schools; invite the Hong Kong Sports Institute to study the strategy for enhancing the training of elite athletes; provide extra resources for training local athletes and to support retired athletes; and
  • Encourage industrial building owners to rent out parts of their buildings as co-working space at concessionary rental.

Civic participation

  • Establish a YDC that comprises at least a certain proportion of young members and members from tertiary institutions;
  • Recruit 20-30 young people into the revamped Central Policy Unit to conduct policy and project research;
  • Appoint a certain proportion of young members into statutory bodies and advisory committees; and
  • Introduce a self-recommendation mechanism for select consultation committees so young people can have more opportunities to participate in public policy discussions.

Health and wellbeing

  • Care for the physical, mental and spiritual needs of students through school-based Life Education and cooperation with families, with a view to strengthening the resilience and enhancing the emotional wellbeing of students.

The Way Forward

The CoY’s dedicated focus group is expected to report its findings to the CoY by early 2018 for further deliberation, after which the CoY will submit final recommendations to the HKSARG regarding Hong Kong’s youth policy. Any comments on Hong Kong’s youth policy (whether as to its vision, strategy or approach), and any suggestions on ways to strengthen coordination among government departments and stakeholders in youth development, are welcome.

I look forward to carrying out the CoY’s mandate of formulating a youth policy, as the basis for establishing a Youth Development Commission. This is a milestone in Hong Kong’s youth development.

Both myself and the CoY will be in consultation with young people, government officials, stakeholders, and members of the public, with a view to crafting a youth policy that is most suited to our youth’s needs and Hong Kong’s economic and social circumstances. Together, we will shape the future direction of Hong Kong’s youth development and build a next generation that can realise their full potential to create fulfilling lives for themselves.

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網上安全圓桌會議 Online Safety Roundtable

昨晚有幸和Facebook的網絡安全專家 Mia Garlick 以及本港的學者和非牟利機構會面,包括香港青年協會香港小童群益會,一起探討如何為年輕人建立一個更安全的網上世界。

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香港有超過九成人使用Facebook, 其中不少是年輕人。Facebook 在亞太區推出不少安全工具,確保青年可以放心使用Facebook,其工作十分有意義。





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Last night, I had the pleasure of meeting with Facebook’s Asia Pacific online safety expert Mia Garlick and Hong Kong academics and NGOs, including The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups (HKFYG) and The Boys’ & Girls’ Clubs Association of Hong Kong (BGCA) to discuss how to make the Internet a safer and better place for youth.

Facebook shared what it is doing to enhance safety for users. More than 90% of the Hong Kong population uses Facebook so it is encouraging to see so many meaningful initiatives on their part.

But we also need other stakeholders’ support. Many cyberbullying cases and other risks on the Internet occur across platforms. The line between offline and online behaviour is increasingly blurred. So we need to strengthen work on all fronts, from school education to social workers’ outreach to media campaigns to legal intervention.

Online safety is also a broad term and it requires us to address issues like Internet addiction, cyberstalking, hate speech, fake news and privacy concerns. While solutions to these problems are varied, some common themes emerged.

We need to improve our youth’s digital and media literacy and Internet etiquette. Young users should be more alert as to Internet risks, more skilful in finding and using information online as well as in utilising various social media platforms. At the same time, we should not neglect the other side of the equation. Oftentimes a computer screen reduces people’s empathy and respect for others, and accountability for their own actions. It makes people less mindful of the impact of their actions and less willing to help others. We talked about inactive bystanders on social media which makes cyberbullying all the more harmful.

Prevention and education must be the way forward. Yet a major hurdle in awareness raising is the difficulty in defining Internet unsafe or unacceptable behaviour. Another complication is understanding and responding to online behaviour in an appropriate and timely manner, given that new platforms and Internet language emerge everyday. This is why stakeholders’ exchange is critical for the local community to move closer to reaching a consensus on fundamental definitions and best practices, as well as on next steps ahead. Hopefully, this will be the first of many similar occasions.

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An Open Note to all Chief Executive Candidates

In the Policy Address 2017, the Commission on Youth (CoY) was asked to put forward proposals for a youth development policy. As the Chairman of the CoY, I ask for the next Chief Executive’s support in formulating a vision for our youth and reaching a unified narrative for all youth-related stakeholders and actions.

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During my term as the Chairman of the Commission on Youth (CoY), I have attached great importance to communicating with our young people. Apart from official activities of the CoY, I have got in touch with young people and listened to their views through less formal channels, including small-group meetings and social media. Many of the youth that I have met are students from all ages and backgrounds, but I have also spoken to young politicians and activists, athletes, entrepreneurs, artists and ethnic minorities. To fully understand our youth and the challenges they face, we must understand the ways in which young people interact with the community at large. This is why I have made sure to engage other stakeholders as well, including parents, teachers and principals, social workers, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and private sector actors that are active or interested in youth development.

2017 is an exciting year for Hong Kong’s youth development, but we have a lot of work to do. The CoY was asked to put forward proposals on the future direction of a youth development policy.

Youth development means different things to different people. To many, it means better education and job opportunities. To others, creating space for civic participation is more important. Every young person is as unique as the other. That is why consultation is key for Hong Kong to formulate a youth development policy that meets the diverse needs of our next generation.

That said, I will use this note to outline what I consider to be the HKSAR Government’s (HKSARG’s) and the next Chief Executive’s priorities in youth development, based on my work and engagements in the past two years. Hong Kong’s youth development policy should address the following areas: (1) education; (2) employment and vocational training; (3) the housing and economic situation; (4) civic participation; (5) national identity; (6) technology and social media; and (7) resilience and mental wellbeing.


Inspire lifelong learning

I have heard many criticisms of Hong Kong’s education system. I have no intention to belittle these concerns, though as I have said before, blaming all education woes on the HKSARG or its officials is simplistic and unfair. It might be more constructive to consider two questions: (i) What is the aim of education? (ii) Is our education system designed and implemented in such a way to achieve this objective?

83% of local secondary students study for the purpose of landing a good job, according to a 2016 survey by Education 2.1. My exchanges with parents and teachers yield the same finding. Yet when students are not studying based on their interests or to fulfill their intellectual curiosity, this has direct implications on their subject choice and passion for learning. Year in and year out, our education system produces batches and batches of students competing for subjects that are more likely to give them a “good job” in industries such as medicine, law, business and finance; nonetheless, many of these students told me that they went through years of training to realise that their real interest lies elsewhere. Is this not a failure on the part of our education system? The introduction of Career and Life Planning (CLP) is a step in the right direction, though it is too early to determine its effectiveness.

Our education system is flawed in many ways. The workload of our students is too heavy. 91% feel pressure in preparing for the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE), and 37% describe the pressure as “severe”. 35% of our students do not have enough time to rest and relax, and 37% do not have time to explore and develop their interests. Our assessment methods are mostly exam-based. The upshot is an educational experience that does not encourage curiosity, creativity, reflection, expression or collaboration, all of which are skills essential in modern society.

We want our youth to have a personalised education that enhances their strengths and creates opportunities for them to explore and pursue their interests starting from an early age. We need a CLP education that is effective in enabling students to make informed choices about their future and facilitating their transition from studying to working. Currently, best practices for conveying CLP education are not known, and this should be changed through better stakeholder communication.

Effective Career and Life Planning methods should be scaled, and parents’ role in students’ life choices need to be better understood.

Many have made suggestions on how to improve our education system, and I do not need to repeat them here. These suggestions bring out the need for a complete review of Hong Kong’s education system, from its syllabus and curriculum to its assessment methods. Language is a key tool for learning, and Hong Kong has always prided itself on its students’ bilingualism. We must ensure that our students do not lose this competitive edge and continually improve our language pedagogy, including Chinese teaching for non-Chinese speaking children.

Visit to Rosary Hill School to learn about Chinese teaching for non-Chinese speaking students.

Visit to Rosary Hill School to learn about Chinese teaching for non-Chinese speaking students.

We want our students to see learning as an enjoyment and not a chore, so that they will be inspired to embark on lifelong learning.

Learning can take place in many contexts. I observed many informal activities outside the classroom and was impressed by their effectiveness in building students’ soft skills, including problem solving, relationships and wellbeing, and financial literacy. International exchange tours, such as the ones supported by the CoY, enable students to gain exposure. There is much to be said for the HKSARG to support life skills programmes and expand the international exchange network for our students.

Learning outside the classroom - at the Jockey Club Ah Kung Wan Outward Bound Training Centre.

Learning outside the classroom – at the Jockey Club Ah Kung Wan Outward Bound Training Centre.

Employment and Vocational Training

Make young people job-ready

Young people find that, compared to their parents, they have fewer job opportunities and witness smaller pay rises as they climb up the career ladder. Comparing relevant figures in 1991 and 2011, more working youth are in lower-paid associate professional jobs, as opposed to higher-paid managerial and professional jobs. More young people have taken up low-waged, low-skilled service and sales jobs over the past 20 years.

The youth wage growth rate dropped from 45.6% in 1993-1998 to 25.6% in 2008-2013. The starting salary of a fresh university graduate was $13,158 in 1993, but fell to $10,860 in 2013, somewhat eroding the common belief that a university degree guarantees financial return. The problem is exacerbated for youth without a university degree. In 2015, the median monthly earnings of a non-degree holder was HK$16,450, significantly lower than the HK$27,500 of a degree holder.

Our youth enjoy less occupational and earnings mobility than the older generation. The unfortunate truth is there is a mismatch of demand and supply in our labour market. The demand for high-skilled professionals has not caught up with the increased (and still increasing) supply of university and sub-degree graduates. Hong Kong has an excess of sub-degree holders, and this excess was projected to increase even more in 2022.

What Hong Kong needs is a broader, more diversified economic base beyond the real estate, finance and commercial sectors. While we can debate about the appropriate degree of economic intervention to diversify jobs, the HKSARG is at least in a good position to foster communications between employers and tertiary institutions to bridge the demand/supply gap. With increased communications, schools can have more clarity on needs in the labour market, and what employers look for in making hiring decisions. Schools can then be more responsive in providing training to students.

The HKSARG should enhance young people’s job-readiness through creating better opportunities for them to gain work experience in their school years. Hong Kong has many mentorship and internship programmes, yet their quality and impact are rarely evaluated.

We need to move beyond quantitative targets, and ensure that internship programmes deliver their intended outcome.

Youth who want to pursue careers in fields like the arts, sports and entrepreneurship face extra hurdles. Parental pressure and societal norms, as well as financial burden, are but a few obstacles they have to overcome in following an “unconventional” path. These young people in particular need support from the HKSARG, from infrastructure to funding to capacity- and network-building.

Taken at Blueprint, a co-working space for tech start-ups.

Taken at Blueprint, a co-working space for tech start-ups.

Housing and Economic Situation

Support youth to be self-sufficient

Housing comes up as a frequent topic of discussion in my exchanges with youth. Many tell me that buying a property in Hong Kong is almost impossible these days. Yet, for every young person who is distressed by the unaffordability of flats in Hong Kong, there is another individual who tells me that he/she does not put housing at the top of his/her concerns.

Housing was among the topics explored in Hong Kong Ideas Centre's report on the concerns of young people.

Housing was among the topics explored in Hong Kong Ideas Centre’s report on the concerns of young people.

To have a clearer understanding of the issue, my team compiled a Hong Kong Youth Development Index (HKYDI) to provide a quantifiable, objective account of Hong Kong youth’s wellbeing in the past 10 years. HKYDI measures the living situation of young people in Hong Kong across six domains, one of them being economic situation. Based on the results, it is true that residential property in Hong Kong has become less affordable in the past decade. The ratio of youth employee earnings to private residential property prices has risen significantly by 112% from 2005 to 2014. However, other aspects of local young people’s economic situation have improved. Youth poverty rate has dropped by 13.1% from 2009 to 2014, and youth employee earnings have increased by 9.4% from 2005 to 2014.

The primary issue lies in our surging property prices. This should not come as a surprise; indeed there has been ample supporting data and public discussions on this subject. The average price for a small residential unit skyrocketed by 188% from 2006 to 2013, while the median monthly household income increased by a mere 30%. The takeaway is that housing is a policy imperative not only in relation to youth, but everyone in Hong Kong, and addressing it requires long-term, comprehensive strategies and coordination from the HKSARG and beyond.

Increasing housing supply is key, and the HKSARG can also take specific measures to support youth in home ownership. For example, the HKSARG can review the eligibility criteria of public housing for youth based on financial needs, and build more youth hostels (beyond the five locations already identified under the Home Affairs Bureau’s Youth Hostel Scheme). Equally important is for all stakeholders (HKSARG, young people and society at large) to put the issue into perspective. Globally, the transition from youth to adulthood has become more complex and drawn out, and many young people delay moving out of the parental home or return after living independently in college. Such is the case in the UK, the US, Australia, and European countries like Sweden and Denmark. This phenomenon suggests that home ownership is not a prerequisite to financial independence.

In many countries, home ownership is not a prerequisite to financial independence.

Many young people around the world are experiencing delayed home ownership (or financial independence, or both), and our youth need not be discouraged or frustrated simply because of this situation. What the HKSARG can do is to understand the factors affecting youth’s financial independence, and measures that other countries have taken to address this issue.

The HKSARG should introduce policies to support our young people in becoming financially self-sufficient.

Civic Participation

Engage our youth fully and effectively

I have spoken to many young people who feel that their voices are not heard or that they do not have enough influence over policymaking. These young people are passionate about certain causes or social affairs, and would like to have their views acknowledged by the HKSARG, if not taken into account. On the other end of the spectrum, there is a significant “silent majority” among local youth. The turnout rate of young voters aged 18-25 in Legislative Council elections has fallen by 15.9% from 2004 to 2012. Less than half of our young people voted in the most recent Legislative and District Council elections, with the relevant voting rate being 44.5% and 30.2% respectively. Both represent a segment of our next generation, and both phenomena reflect that our youth are not fully engaged on civic matters. While formal platforms and channels such as the Annual Youth Summit and Youth Exchange Sessions exist, they have not been successful in allowing our youth to feel adequately represented.

Yau Tsim Mong Youths' Community Concern Group is a group of passionate young people who meet up regularly to discuss policies affecting youth.

Yau Tsim Mong Youths’ Community Concern Group is a group of passionate young people who meet up regularly to discuss policies affecting youth.

We must not forget that informal exchanges go hand in hand with formal political participation. In my experience, small and casual group chats (instead of large-scale, official events) are often more effective in soliciting candid comments and promoting constructive discussions with young people. Social media is another powerful tool for reaching out to the “silent majority”, and the HKSARG should leverage its full potential in enhancing civic participation.
The HKSARG can place more emphasis on informal exchanges and social media interactions, as well as on encouraging volunteerism.

We must also not forget that community involvement entails more than political participation; it also involves volunteerism. Through engaging youth in community services, young people not only develop positive virtues like citizenship and a sense of belonging to the community, they also hone skills essential for the job market, such as leadership, teamwork, communication, creativity and problem-solving. The HKSARG should encourage and offer more opportunities for young people to give back to the community.

Meet one of the founders of the Second Box, which aims to alleviate elderly poverty through collecting cardboard boxes and aluminium cans from scavengers at a higher-than-market price, and redesigning and selling them.

Meet one of the founders of the Second Box, which aims to alleviate elderly poverty through collecting cardboard boxes and aluminium cans from scavengers at a higher-than-market price, and redesigning and selling them.

National Identity

Facilitate informed decision-making

The HKSARG has had a long history of supporting youth exchange in Mainland China. In 2016/17 alone, the CoY funded more than 300 exchange and internship tours organised by third parties. I personally joined some of these tours to collect students’ feedback. Participants told me that they appreciated authentic exchanges with local people, and free time to explore the destination city and its culture.

Taken at a CoY-funded exchange programme in Inner Mongolia.

Taken at a CoY-funded exchange programme in Inner Mongolia.


This has led me to believe that, on the subject of national identity, the HKSARG’s role is to encourage our youth to learn about Mainland China and provide them with adequate opportunities to do so – no more and no less. One’s cultural identity is an individual choice and it can only be meaningfully formed through personal experience and reflection. Measures like rote-learning the Basic Law and Putonghua recital competitions have had limited effect because they convey only superficial knowledge, but do not engender a genuine understanding of Mainland China or create personal resonance.

We must also not forget the fact that Hong Kong has a unique identity and culture that is quite different from that of Mainland China. Because of “One Country, Two Systems”, Hong Kong remains a capitalist economy and has a common law legal system; we continue to use Cantonese and traditional Chinese characters predominantly in our day-to-day lives; and we have very different media outlets. We cannot blame our young people for not feeling as connected as they should be with Mainland China.

Our tech-savvy youth have access to a wide range of information and media online, representing different views on the issue of national identity as well as towards Mainland China. Some sources contain misinformation or stereotypes, and it would be unfortunate if our youth were to base their views on these sources alone. Herein lies the significance of letting our youth have a first-hand experience of Mainland China and its culture.

The HKSARG should provide youth with opportunities to make an informed decision about their cultural identity, while acknowledging that any shift in perception will come from within.

Over the years, exchange and internship programmes in Mainland China have evolved into diversified and interactive learning experiences. For one, destinations now span the whole of China. For another, the types of programmes range from cultural and historical tours, to legal and architectural internships, to volunteer service camps. Precisely because of the scale of these programmes, their standards and outcomes have not been consistent. As the HKSARG continues to support these schemes, it is imperative to evaluate their quality, especially from our young people’s perspective, to make sure that they truly benefit youth.

Technology and Social Media

Enhance Digital Literacy and Minimise Safety Risks

Policy suggestions in this area tend to focus on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education and job creation in the IT industry. I would like to shift the focus to the profound impact that technology has on our next generation. Technology influences how young people interact with each other, and how they perceive the world and themselves. As social media becomes ubiquitous, its role in the lives of millennials has expanded beyond socialising with peers; it is now a space for them to voice opinions on public affairs and organise community actions (the social context). For many young people, social media and, more broadly, the Internet has become an important information and news source, and a platform for creating and sharing one’s work (the academic context). Risks and opportunities exist in both contexts. We need to teach our youth how to make the most out of technology whilst minimising the harm it entails.

Cover page for our research report that looked into sexting, among other risks related to teenagers' use of technology.

Cover page for our research report that looked into sexting, among other risks related to teenagers’ use of technology.

In the social context, social media creates opportunities for young people to express themselves, thereby building self-esteem and establishing their own identity. As alluded to above, the HKSARG needs to better leverage social media as a tool to enhance civic awareness and participation. On the other hand, policies should protect our youth from privacy and safety risks, primarily through prevention and education. Cyberbullying is a real concern in many countries, such as the UK and the US, and yet Hong Kong is lacking in our understanding of the issue.

In the academic context, young people can develop competencies from seeking, evaluating and disseminating information online, and the information fluency they acquire is increasingly critical for success in the modern age. On the flip side, they do face risks of information overload and fortuitous searching.

We must ensure that youth possess the digital literacy to find and process online information and assess their credibility and quality.

The HKSARG should engage stakeholders to better understand Hong Kong youth’s social media use, particularly its potential benefits and how we can leverage it as an educational tool. Where risks exist, it should formulate intervention strategies.

The HKSARG can identify synergies between various entities, including technology companies in the private sector and NGOs to create impactful initiatives against cyberbullying.

Resilience and Mental Wellbeing

Build a generation of resilient youth

The suicide cases among students last year have prompted discussions on the mental health of young people and the formation of a dedicated Committee on Prevention of Student Suicides. The Committee has done ample work to tackle the issue of suicide prevention, but I see these cases as also underscoring a broader principle that Hong Kong has overlooked in youth development – resilience. Resilience is a theme that underlies many youth policies across the world, including the UK, Australia and New Zealand. To borrow the UK’s definition, resilience is the “mental toughness” that helps young people deal with challenge, stress, and pressure. Once we shift the focus from suicide prevention to a proactive, holistic strategy to instil resilience, the question becomes:

How do we equip our youth with the ability to cope with adversity and overcome hurdles in life? This should guide the HKSARG in forming strategies on youth development.

Instilling resilience needs to take place in all contexts. Schools, teachers, parents, social workers, and organisers of youth programmes all play a role. There are two points that we can all remind ourselves of when interacting with our youth. First, we need to provide young people with more opportunities to experience success in different ways. We must move away from elitism and a utilitarian view of extra-curricular activities, and foster a culture of diversity where students learn to appreciate their individuality and strengths. Second, we need to encourage our youth to have a growth mindset – that is, to perceive failures and setbacks as opportunities for growth. To do this, we as adults should let young people try and even fail, and praise efforts instead of outcome. It also entails letting young people take initiative and ownership.

Young athletes at the ChelseaFC Soccer School.

Young athletes at the ChelseaFC Soccer School.

The HKSARG should take the lead in recognising resilience as an overarching principle of youth development. This principle should inform decision-making on allocating resources for youth programmes. The HKSARG should also raise awareness among the public of resilience, diversity, and the growth mindset, to foster a supportive environment overall for our youth to grow up in.


Let's build a generation of happy, healthy and resilient youth.

Let’s build a generation of happy, healthy and resilient youth.

This note identifies the issues pertaining to youth in Hong Kong that necessitate attention and action from the HKSARG, and hence the next Chief Executive. While it does not represent the views of all young people or stakeholders in youth development, it is my personal reflection as CoY Chairman after 420 occasions of youth engagement and public outreach during my two-year term.

What is important is that these issues are all inter-connected in terms of their effect on youth. A young person who struggles in school is likely to face obstacles in finding a job and attaining financial security as well. Yet Hong Kong’s policies pertaining to youth have always belonged to the domains of different bureaux working in silos. What is equally noteworthy is that youth work involves more actors than the HKSARG, depending on the issue at hand. Some issues can be addressed by governmental measures alone; some may be more effectively dealt with at a grassroots level or with the support of the private sector.

Herein lies the significance of a youth development policy. It allows the HKSARG to adopt a cross cutting “youth perspective” in making and implementing all of its policies affecting young people.

A youth development policy is Hong Kong’s long term vision for its youth, a unified narrative for all stakeholders, and a strategic roadmap for future actions.

Our youth are our future. They need our support to be happy, healthy and resilient. A youth development policy lays down our way forward to achieve this goal, and I ask that the next Chief Executive support us in this endeavour.

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綜觀世界各地,不少國家及機構都建立了一套量度當地或世界各地青年發展的指數,例如英聯邦及澳洲的《青年發展指數》(Youth Development Index,YDI)。反觀香港,似乎仍未有一套全面、客觀的青年發展指數。有見及此,我們製作了《香港青年發展指數》(HKYDI),以六個範疇、十八項指標,量度過去十年香港青年發展的狀況。HKYDI為香港首個客觀量度青年發展狀況的指數,除了供各界參考之餘,亦希望能藉此引起更多有關青年發展的討論。








綜合以上六個範疇的表現,香港青年發展的狀況在公民參與、預防偏差行為,以及身心健康方面確有改善;而在教育、就業,以及經濟狀況方面的表現,則較十年前退步。事實上,每個地方的青年發展都有不同重點,因此在建立青年發展指數時,有需要參考當地的青年政策,尤其對青年的願景,以作為評估青年發展狀況的基準。雖然香港現時未以青年政策勾劃出對青年的願景,但支持青年的措施也不少,HKYDI可以作為客觀量度香港青年發展狀況的參考工具,間接反映相關措施的成效。我們希望能藉HKYDI ,提供一個客觀的討論基礎,並讓社會各界一同探討香港的青年發展。


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綜觀其他國家和地區的青年政策,以英國、瑞典、澳洲、新西蘭、日本、蒙古和澳門為例,縱然各有細微差別 (詳情請參閱下表),但都顯示青年政策不能只列出各項與青年有關的措施,但缺乏整體願景。英國、瑞典、澳洲、新西蘭和澳門都有全面的青年政策,表達對該國年輕人的願景,並設立中央青年機構,確保所有與青年相關的措施都切合政策對青年的期望。專為青年而設的中央機構的另一個作用,當然是分配資源、避免重複工作。而日本和蒙古的青年政策都比較鬆散,措施分佈教育、就業和社會福利各個領域,由不同政府部門管轄,並沒有中央指引或協調。

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英國、瑞典、澳洲和新西蘭的青年政策的另一個特點是它們對青年的態度——它們都著重青年的正面特質,並不把青年視為問題。拿英國2011 – 2015年的青年政策為例,強調給年輕人提供機會,讓他們發展所長,新西蘭也有著類此的聲明。瑞典青年政策的三大支柱的其中之一是讓青年自給自足、掌握自己的人生。另一方面,日本、蒙古和澳門的青年政策展示出一種負面的心態,以風險管理、預防偏差行為為中心 。日本主要以輔導方式解決青年問題,包括兼職並經常轉工的青年、啃老族(意謂沒有受教育或培訓,又不是在工作的青年)、退學青年、犯罪行為等。蒙古主要通過社會福利措施,減少對青年的風險和傷害。澳門以預防青年犯罪作為其政策的主要目標之一。英國、瑞典、澳洲和新西蘭在制訂青年政策時都有諮詢過年輕人,相反,沒有任何證據顯示日本和蒙古當局進行過大型諮詢,而這有否影響各地青年政策的內容,值得大家細想。


青年政策,就像任何政策一樣,必須切合當地的情況和需要。英國全面、抗逆力為本的青年政策,可能不適合日本的經濟、社會和文化背景,反之亦然。如果我們把上述各地的青年政策概括分成兩類,英國、瑞典、澳洲和新西蘭的青年政策似乎是在光譜的一端,而日本和蒙古似乎是在光譜的另一端, 澳門則介於兩者之間。委員會提出的青年政策與前者比較相近,而最終建議沒有被採納,實在可惜。如果香港設立青年政策,你認為它應該是怎樣的?


What should our youth policy look like?

Previously, we talked about how Hong Kong nearly had a youth policy in the 1980s. By “youth policy”, the Central Committee on Youth (CCY) was referring to a high-level, visionary statement of the aspirations and goals for Hong Kong youth and general principles for their development, based on Hong Kong’s developmental trends. CCY decided against a policy with concrete measures, because the public had different opinions and it would not be cost-effective to regularly review specific measures given the lead time in implementation.

I have reviewed youth policies in certain countries and regions, including the United Kingdom (UK), Sweden, Australia, New Zealand (NZ), Japan, Mongolia and Macau. They display subtle differences (for details, please see the tables below), but together they demonstrate what a youth policy should not be – a laundry list of measures relating to youth but without a unifying vision. UK, Sweden, Australia, NZ and Macau adopt a holistic approach, setting a long-term vision for their young people. This vision guides all youth-related measures, and there is a central coordinating body to ensure this; its other function is of course to allocate resources and avoid duplication of efforts. Japan’s and Mongolia’s policies are more fragmented, with measures in education, employment and welfare, but scattered across government departments without a central rationale or coordination.

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Another feature that the UK, Sweden, Australia and NZ have in common is their attitude towards youth – one of positive empowerment, rather than negative problem-solution. UK, for instance, named its 2011-2015 policy Positive for Youth; much like New Zealand, it stresses on providing youth with opportunities and developing their capabilities. One of the three pillars of the Swedish policy is self-sufficiency – to give youth a real possibility to influence their everyday lives. On the other hand, Japan, Mongolia and Macau demonstrate a risk-centered mentality. Japan’s policy talks much about youth problems, e.g., “freeters” (job-hopping part-time workers), NEETs (“Not in Education, Employment or Training”), school withdrawal and delinquency, and uses counseling as the main solution. Mongolia protects youth against harms primarily through social welfare measures. Macau has juvenile delinquency prevention as one of its key objectives. Coincidentally or perhaps not so coincidentally, the first four countries consulted young people in the process of formulating their youth policies, whereas there was no evidence of any official, large-scale consultation in Japan or Mongolia.

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A youth policy, like any other policy, must suit local circumstances and needs. The holistic, resilience model in the UK may not work well in the economic, social and cultural setting of Japan, and vice versa. If we were to simplify these policies into two categories, UK, Sweden, Australia and NZ seem to be on one end of the spectrum, while Japan and Mongolia seem to be on the other end, with Macau being somewhere in between. It was a shame that the CCY’s proposal for a youth policy in Hong Kong was not accepted, but if it were, what should Hong Kong’s youth policy look like?

(To be continued…)

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想知道更多有關香港青年政策發展的歷史,請瀏覽互動時序表 (Interactive Timeline),或按此下載以下文件:

  • 英文備忘錄 English Memorandum – History of Youth Policy in Hong Kong; 
  • 附件一 Appendix 1 – Central Committee on Youth Working Party on Youth Policy, Report on Youth Policy (1988); 
  • 附件二 Appendix 2 – Hong Kong Council of Social Service Children and Youth Division, Opinion Survey on Youths’ Views on Youth Policy (1988); 
  • 附件三 Appendix 3 – Hong Kong Legislative Council, Hansard (11 May 1988) (see p. 1365 onwards for a discussion on youth policy);
  • 附件四 Appendix 4 – Central Committee on Youth, Report on the Need for a Youth Policy in Hong Kong (1989); 
  • 附件五 Appendix 5 – Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Draft Charter for Youth (Fact Sheet No. 4) (1992); 
  • 附件六 Appendix 6 – Chan Wai-Yin Rosa, The Evolution of a Youth Policy in Hong Kong (1990); 
  • 附件七 Appendix 7 – Mok Hon-Fai James, Hegemonic Accounts of Youth in Hong Kong, 1980 – 1997 (1998); and 
  • 附件八 Appendix 8 – Chan Shui-Ching, A Proposal for Formulating a Youth Policy in Hong Kong for the 21st Century (2009)。


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